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MODERN MUSHROOM FARMS

We propose modern, energy safe and optimized z solutions for the field of mushroom cultivation

CONSTRUCTION AND EQUIPMENT OF PROFESSIONAL MUSHROOM FARMS

THE ELEMENTS OF A MUSHROOM FARM

Professional industrial mushroom farm is made up of:
• Growing rooms equipped with the necessary air handling units, ventilation, watering systems with microclimate control system and equipment for growing mushrooms (e.g growing shelving, picking lorries, growing nets, tables for weighting mushrooms, scales)
• a communication corridor, which connects growing rooms
• cold stores with shockers,
• packing room, i.e. a separate room located in next to the cold store,
• loading ramp, often located in the loading room,
• packing storage,
• garage for machines,
• offices and toilets, social rooms,
• cold water engine room,
• boiler room.

HOW TO START BUILDING

By omitting the question of the territory, you should determine the result you want to obtain, i.e. the amount of the product in some time. It depends on the size of growing area. At this stage it is necessary to prepare a good project. The best way out is if it is done by the company that specializes in this. Here are some examples of typical mushroom farms which are built by Agro-Projects - general contractor of mushroom farms and other industrial objects, from project to building, assembly and service.

Example 1

• Production: 2200-2400 tons of mushrooms / year
• 12 growing rooms
• Total growing area: 12 rooms x 723.6 m2 = 8683 m2
• Object is adapted to the 3rd phase of compost
• Capacity of about 30-32 kg mushrooms per m2 of growing area
• Loading of compost: about 85-88 kg / m2 of growing area
• The amount of compost needed - 124 tonnes / week
• Loading of casing soil: about 40 kg / m2
• Cycle: 6 weeks (from loading to unloading room)
• Mushrooms occur in three "flushes"
• Way of loading / unloading: mechanical
• Way of picking up: manual or mechanical

Example 2

• Production: 5600-5800 tonnes of mushrooms / year
• 24 growing rooms
• Total growing area: 24 x 916.6 m2 = 21 997 m2
• Object is adapted to the 3rd phase of compost
• Capacity of about 30-32 kg mushrooms per m2 of growing area
• Loading of compost: about 85-88 kg / m2 of growing area
• The amount of compost needed - 320 tons / week
• Loading of casing soil: about 40 kg / m2
• Cycle: 6 weeks (from loading to unloading room)
• Mushrooms occur in three "flushes"
• Way of loading / unloading: mechanical
• Way of picking up: manual or mechanical

NEEDS FOR MANUFACTURE 5600-5800 TONS OF MUSHROOMS / year (approximate data)


• Water consumption: 34,000 m3 / year
• Area for investment - min: 3 ha.
• Energy consumption: 1600 kW
• Gas consumption: 320-400 m3 / h

WHAT SHOULD BE CONSIDERED DURING DESIGN AND BUILDING

First, the thermal insulation of walls and ceilings. This is especially important due to the specific technology of mushroom production, taking into consideration the stage of evaporation of rooms. Extremely there could be an enormous difference between the temperature inside the room, which can reach over 70 C and the outside temperature, e.g. -15C. Therefore, excellent insulation of the building and selection of materials with the highest insulation and vapour barrier properties are so much important. Unfriendly conditions (e.g. high humidity) are also extremely important, so it is important to choose materials with high quality anti-corrosion coating. At present, it is increasingly common to use sandwich panels with polyurethane core in steel lining. In addition to the excellent parameters of the building, special gates for growing rooms should be used, separating the inside part from the outside part and internal doors for growing rooms with appropriate heat transfer and tightness parameters.

THE SYSTEMS AND INSTALLATIONS THAT SHOULD BE THE MUSHROOM FARMS EQUIPPED WITH

1. Cooling, ventilation, central heating systems and air handling units, which will provide the optimal air parameters inside the growing rooms.
2. Microclimate control system, which allows central control of all parameters within the growing rooms. The system measures the humidity, temperature and CO2 concentration inside the growing rooms. The external technological devices (cooling, heating, air handling units) that are controlled by the system, which additionally decode the parameters of the air outside, allow to change the microclimate conditions inside each room separately.
3. Watering system of the compost, which is designed for mounting in growing shelves. It consists of a water line equipped with the pump which is powdered by an inverter and watering nozzles that are located on the water line above the growing shelves. The system includes the hydraulic components. The optimal solution is to provide the watering nozzles with an 'anti-drip' module. The system should also contain solenoid inlets, drain valves on the supply risers by the growing shelving, valves at the end of the shelves, pressure sensor and flow meter. Optionally it is possible to provide with the connection of chemical dispenser and the steel, zinc extension of the top shelf of the growing shelving.
4. Lighting system for growing rooms is usually represented in the form of hermetic luminaires, which are resistant to difficult conditions in the growing rooms.

NECESSARY EQUIPMENT

For mushroom growing professional equipment, made of durable and anti-corrosive materials is very important, such as:
• growing shelving,
• growing nets,
• picking lorries for top beds,
• picking lorries for bottom beds,
• table for weighting mushrooms and scales,
• container for mushroom refuse.

HOW TO GROW

Cycles: In buildings that do not have air handling units mushrooms are grown in two cycles per year - spring (December or January) and autumn (starting in August). In modern rooms equipped with air handling units, the production of mushrooms can be carried out all year round, in more than 8 cycles.
Requirements: mushroom does not need light for the development . In dark areas it is easier to keep moisture. It does not contain chlorophyll, so it does not have the ability to absorb carbon dioxide. A factor that has a significant influence on successful growing is the temperature that should be between 12 and 20 ° C. Because of the large amount of carbon dioxide that is revealing during the compost degradation, the growing room is constantly ventilated using air handling units and overpressure louvers.
Сompost: suitable compost is in need for growing mushrooms. Nowadays it is possible to buy a ready-to-use compost with mycelium that may be in two stages of development. After three weeks from loading the compost which is in the third phase on the growing shelving it is possible to start obtaining mushrooms. At the 3rd phase there is the compost with already overgrown mycelium. The compost which is used for growing mushrooms is mushroom compost, which is fermented with straw horse or chicken manure. The prepared compost should be loaded with the casing on the growing shelving which is regularly moisturized. After a few weeks there is overgrowth of mycelium.
Productivity: On one square meter of compost with mycelium of about 18 cm thick over 30 kg of mushrooms can grow. This means that from the room with an area of e.g. 560 m2 will be picked up about 17 tons of mushrooms. The productivity is great, as the mushroom can increase its volume by up to 50% by the day.
Hygiene: Green mold is one of the most dangerous mushroom diseases. This disease can destroy the entire crop if it appears. It is difficult to distinguish it from the mycelium. Tightly closure of the rooms does not always make results, so the most effective way to get rid of undesired microorganisms is the daily disinfection of the passages between growing shelves. Once a week, as well as in the break between cycles, a complete disinfection is required. When mold appears, there is basically no way to control it. It is worth adding that the source of this mushroom disease is often the workers themselves. That is why daily disinfection of aprons, the use of disposable gloves and the regular cleaning of the knives for cutting mushroom stems are so much important. Such measures effectively eliminate transferring of mold spores directly into the growing area.

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